LimmaTech Biologics applies various technologies to produce biologically active polysaccharides and glycoproteins:

The development and characterization of an E. coli O25B bioconjugate vaccine
Michael Kowarik, Michael Wetter, Micha A. Haeuptle, Martin Braun, Michael Steffen, Stefan Kemmler, Neil Ravenscroft, Gianluigi De Benedetto, Matthias Zuppiger, Dominique Sirena, Paola Cescutti & Michael Wacker Published: 17 March 2021

Immune response characterization in a human challenge study with a Shigella flexneri 2a bioconjugate vaccine
Kristen A Clarkson, Kawsar R Talaat, Cristina Alaimo, Patricia Martin, A Louis Bourgeois, Anita Dreyer, Chad K Porter, Subhra Chakraborty, Jessica Brubaker, Daniel Elwood, Rahel Frölich, Barbara DeNearing, Hailey P Weerts, Brittany Feijoo, Jane Halpern, David Sack, Mark S Riddle, Veronica Gambillara Fonck, Robert W Kaminski Published: April 02, 2021 DOI:

Human challenge study with a Shigella bioconjugate vaccine: Analyses of clinical efficacy and correlate of protection
Kawsar R. Talaata, Cristina Alaimo, Patricia Martin, A. Louis Bourgeois, Anita M. Dreyer, Robert W. Kaminski, Chad K. Porter, Subhra Chakraborty, Kristen A. Clarkson, Jessica Brubaker, Daniel Elwood, Rahel Frölich, Barbara DeNearing, Hailey Weerts, Brittany L. Feijoo, Jane Halpern, David Sack, Mark S. Riddle, Veronica Gambillara Fonck Published: April 12, 2021 DOI:

The development and early clinical testing of the ExPEC4V conjugate vaccine against uropathogenic Escherichia coli
Huttner A, Gambillara V 2018 Oct;24(10):1046-1050. doi: 10.1016/j.cmi.2018.05.009. Epub 2018 May 24.

Safety, immunogenicity, and preliminary clinical efficacy of a vaccine against extraintestinal pathogenic Escherichia coli in women with a history of recurrent urinary tract infection: a randomised, single-blind, placebo-controlled phase 1b trial
Angela Huttner, Christoph Hatz, Germie van den Dobbelsteen, Darren Abbanat, Alena Hornacek, Rahel Frölich, Anita M Dreyer, Patricia Martin, Todd Davies, Kellen Fae, Ingrid van den Nieuwenhof, Stefan Thoelen, Serge de Vallière, Anette Kuhn, Enos Bernasconi, Volker Viereck, Tilemachos Kavvadias, Kerstin Kling, Gloria Ryu, Tanja Hülder, Sabine Gröger, David Scheiner, Cristina Alaimo, Stephan Harbarth, Jan Poolman, Veronica Gambillara Fonck Published: 23 February 2017

Safety and Immonogenicity of a Candidate Bioconjugate Vaccine against Shigella flexneri 2a Administered to Healthy Adults: a Single-Blind, Randomized Phase I Study
Riddle MS, Kaminski RW, Di Paolo C, Porter CK, Gutierrez RL, Clarkson KA, Weerts HE, Duplessis C, Castellano A, Alaimo C, Paolino K, Gormley R, Gambillara Fonck V. Clin Vaccine Immunol. 2016 Dec 5;23(12):908-917

Immunogenicity and safety of a tetravalent E. coli O-antigen bioconjugate vaccine in animal models
van den Dobbelsteen G, Faé KC, Serroyen J, van den Nieuwenhof I, Braun M, Haeuptle M, Sirena D, Schneider J, Alaimo C, Lipowsky G, Gambillara-Fonck V, Wacker M, Poolman JT. Vaccine. 2016 Jul 29;34(35):4152-60

Safety and immunogenicity of a candidate bioconjugate vaccine against Shigella dysenteriae type 1 administered to healthy adults: A single blind, partially randomized Phase I study
Hatz CF, Bally B, Rohrer S, Steffen R, Kramme S, Siegrist CA, Wacker M, Alaimo C, Fonck VG. Vaccine. 2015 Jul 7. pii: S0264-410X(15)00919-6.

Prevention of Staphylococcus aureus infections by glycoprotein vaccines synthesized in Escherichia coli
Wacker M, Wang L, Kowarik M, Dowd M, Lipowsky G, Faridmoayer A, Shields K, Park S, Alaimo C, Kelley KA, Braun M, Quebatte J, Gambillara V, Carranza P, Steffen M, Lee JC. J Infect Dis. 2014 May 15;209(10):1551-61.

Definition of the bacterial N-glycosylation site consensus sequence
Kowarik M, Young NM, Numao S, Schulz BL, Hug I, Callewaert N, Mills DC, Watson DC, Hernandez M, Kelly JF, Wacker M, Aebi M. EMBO J. 2006 May 3;25(9):1957-66.

Engineering N-linked protein glycosylation with diverse O antigen lipopolysaccharide structures in Escherichia coli
Feldman MF, Wacker M, Hernandez M, Hitchen PG, Marolda CL, Kowarik M, Morris HR, Dell A, Valvano MA, Aebi M. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2005 Feb 22;102(8):3016-21.

N-linked glycosylation in Campylobacter jejuni and its functional transfer into E. coli
Wacker M, Linton D, Hitchen PG, Nita-Lazar M, Haslam SM, North SJ, Panico M, Morris HR, Dell A, Wren BW, Aebi M. Science. 2002 Nov 29;298(5599):1790-3.

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